Ayman al Zawahiri warns against ‘nationalist’ agenda in Syria

Al Qaeda’s propaganda arm, As Sahab, released an audio message from emir Ayman al Zawahiri earlier today. The audio file, which was spliced together with images from the Sunni jihad in Syria, is just over six minutes long. It was released via social media, including on As Sahab’s Telegram channel.

Zawahiri warns that the Syrian war shouldn’t be considered an exclusively “nationalist” effort, because this is what the Sunni jihadists’ enemies want. Instead, he says the Syrian conflict should be viewed as the “cause of the entire Ummah,” or worldwide community of Muslims.

Zawahiri’s comments are potentially interesting in light of Al Nusrah Front’s rebranding last year, and then the group’s merger with several others to form Hay’at Tahrir al Sham (“Assembly for the Liberation of the Levant”) in January. Various al Qaeda actors and other jihadists inside Syria have debated how to best portray themselves to the world. Al Nusrah’s relaunch in July 2016 was blessed beforehand by Zawahiri’s deputy, but some al Qaeda figures rejected it.

Zawahiri does not specifically mention Hay’at Tahrir al Sham or any other group in Syria, so we can only speculate if he is commenting on some specific debate within jihadist circles. But that appears likely.

Zawahiri does explicitly endorse the insurgency in Syria, saying that it is a “guerrilla” war and the jihadists should not focus on holding territory at this time. Instead, Zawahiri says, they must focus on weakening their enemies.

“To begin with, I would like to tell our beloved people in Sham [the Levant] that your wounds are the wounds of the entire Ummah, and your pain is the pain of the entire Ummah. You are in our prayers at every moment, and we wish to sacrifice our souls for you,” Zawahiri begins his message, which was released with an English transcript.

“If anything stands in our way,” Zawahiri continues, “it is the fact that we are engaged in fighting the same Crusader enemy which you are up against, though on a different front.”

The al Qaeda chieftain claims that the “only reason” Sunni Muslims in Syria “are being targeted” is that they “want Islam to rule over the land of Sham.” The “International Satanic Alliance will never accept this, and it will spare no effort to stop this Islamic tide,” Zawahiri says.

Consistent with al Qaeda’s messaging in the past, Zawahiri portrays the US and the West as being in league with Iran and Bashar al Assad’s regime. Indeed, he advises the people of Syria to “prepare” themselves “for a protracted war against the Crusaders and their Rafidhi [derogatory term for Shiites and Iran] and Nusayri [meaning the Assad regime] allies.”

Zawahiri praises the people for having “taken up the path of jihad in the way of Allah to raise the flag of Islam and jihad on the land of Sham, and to liberate it from oppression, tyranny and corruption.”

“So do not backtrack,” he says. “Know no wavering or compromise. Die honorably, but never accept a life of humiliation.”

The al Qaeda head reiterates his organization’s call for unity within the insurgency. Since the beginning of the war, with a few exceptions, al Qaeda’s men have attempted to remain as closely allied with other rebel groups as possible. This strategy was upset by the rise of Abu Bakr al Baghdadi’s Islamic State in 2013 and 2014, but al Qaeda’s arm continued to cooperate with other Islamist, jihadist and Free Syrian Army-branded outfits.

“Unite and close your ranks with your Muslim brothers and mujahideen not just in Sham, but the entire world, for it is a single Crusader campaign being waged against Muslims the world over,” Zawahiri says.

He then pivots to a critique of anyone who thinks the Syrian war can be separated from the jihad elsewhere around the globe.

Speaking to the jihadists in Syria, Zawahiri says that some “wish to deceive you into buying the myth that only if you were to change your jihad to an exclusively nationalist Syrian struggle, [then] the leading international criminals would be pleased with you.”

“My people and my brothers in Sham,” Zawahiri says, “I would like to offer here a few words of advice as a reminder to you and myself.” Then, somewhat cryptically, he adds: “We must constantly review our actions, and retract ourselves from everything which is capable of hindering victory. For we can never be better than the Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him), who were denied victory when they disobeyed. Critical reassessment and correction of mistakes is the first step in the patch to victory.”

Zawahiri does not say which “mistakes” he has mind.

“In my humble opinion,” the al Qaeda head continues, “the strategy for jihad in Sham must focus on a guerrilla war aimed at wearing down the enemy and bleeding it to death.” This “has been the weapon of choice of the oppressed against arrogant transgressors in every age,” Zawahiri says. “Do not occupy yourselves with holding on to territory, instead focus on destroying the morale of your enemy. Take the enemy to the point of abysmal despair by inflicting unrelenting blows and unbearable losses on its forces.”

For the second time in his short message, Zawahiri again warns against treating the Syrian conflict as a “nationalist” struggle. The “cause of Sham is the cause of the entire Ummah,” he says. “We must not present it as merely a cause of the people of Sham, and then further narrow it down to a cause of Syrians alone, for this is precisely the enemy’s plan and his much sought after objective.”

“The enemy seeks to transform the jihad in Sham from a cause of the Muslim Ummah to an exclusively nationalist Syrian cause, then turn the nationalist cause to an issue of specific regions and localities, and finally reduce this to an issue of a few cities, villages and neighborhoods,” Zawahiri argues. Therefore, it “is incumbent upon us to confront this evil strategy by declaring that the jihad in Sham is the jihad of the Muslim Ummah aimed at establishing the rule of Allah in the land of Allah. This must coincide with encouraging the entire Ummah to participate in the jihad of Sham with its sons, wealth, efforts, and energies.”

Zawahiri provides a short list of Muslims who have “defended Sham earlier in history,” including Salahuddin and the Ottoman Turks. He points out that “none” of the people on his list “were Syrians, but were Muslims and mujahids before anything else.” This is likely a reminder to jihadists to treat the many foreign fighters in Syria who have joined the anti-Assad insurgency as equals.

The al Qaeda leader closes by saying that the jihadists should not seek to placate the West, or any others. “We must not submit therefore to the dictations of the leading criminals, who seek to intimidate us with accusations of ‘terrorism’ and ‘extremism,’” Zawahiri says. He warns that this will lead to the same fate as that suffered by Mohamed Morsi, the Muslim Brotherhood leader who briefly served as president of Egypt.

“These are the same forces that did not even spare Mohamed Morsi, inspite of the fact that he had given them all they had asked for,” Zawahiri says. He adds: “I ask Allah to give our people in Sham steadfastness. May Allah bless them with His victory and support, and guide them to take a common stance alongside their Mujahideen brethren the world over against a common united enemy.”

Thomas Joscelyn is a Senior Fellow at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies and the Senior Editor for FDD's Long War Journal.

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  • Arjuna says:

    I’d rather talk about which Karachi slum that rat is hiding in than his little propaganda tapes. Hope people have read the Stein Newsweek piece and pre-ordered the Levy book. May Allah bless America in its search for the Doctor and ensure he is quickly brought to justice. As for his propaganda, it’s all based on the Koran. Enough said,

  • 2017 says:

    i wonder if HTS and the other al qaeda affiliates in syria will start an all out jihad against daesh and abu bakr al baghdadi after daesh are eliminated in mosul. daesh controls only 5 districts in west mosul. daesh lost a district in west mosul 2 or 3 days ago. the only way al qaeda can succeed against bashar al assad is if they FIRST get rid of daesh by taking raqqah from daesh. daesh losing raqqah will end daesh.

  • Timothy Blair says:

    I have been many parts of India. Most of them are even filthier than Karachi. I saw people Whatever you portray as nice and clean in your movies is not shot in India. In fact, most of you movies are actually shot in Europe, Singapore, Malaysia, America etc…. Next time, talk abaout your slums please….

  • Devendra Sood says:

    A couple of questions. Does any one even listen to this gutless coward who is hiding in his rat whole? Two, if he is such a Jihadi and warrior of Allah, why doesn’t he go outand lead his warriors in Syria. The Dirty, Coward, RAT.

  • Sean inNYC says:

    Just as AQ is doing in Afghanistan: give the outside powers reason to draw down forces/ leave, and then slowly and quietly take over the country village by village, governate by governate.

  • Arjuna says:

    Uglyface is connected to St Petersburg now, per SITE.
    Supposedly he wants one more big attack against America.

  • Mark Adkins says:

    No doubt Zawahiri is subtly asserting himself as the head of the umma (worldwide community of believers).

    In his book The Secret History of Al Qaeda, Abdel Bari Atwan writes:

    “Defensive jihad is considered fard’ayn, meaning obligatory for every single Muslim at the time and place concerned.

    “… Offensive jihad can only be called for by the caliph, the head of the umma… The absence of a caliph is seen by some Muslims as a violation of shari’ah, and restoring it a crucial first step in reversing their fortunes. One of Al Qaeda’s declared aims is to restore the caliphate and, by implication, the former glory of the umma.”

    By implication, Zawahiri is asserting his right to the title of caliph, in competition with Baghdadi.

  • Mark Adkins says:

    P.S. Zawahiri’s talk of “mistakes” in conjunction with his admonition to jihadists not to obsess with holding territory, is another subtle dig at Islamic State.

    Al Qaeda’s strategy for establishing a caliphate has always been to concentrate on attacking the “far enemy” — the West in general and the United States in particular, under the theory that their removal or withdrawal from the conflict would cause despotic and apostate local regimes depending on American support (e.g. Saudi Arabia) to weaken and falter, thus allowing the establishment of a stable Middle Eastern caliphate. (Naive, but that’s their strategy.)

    By contrast, Islamic State concentrated on the “near enemy” of apostate local regimes, attempting to establish the caliphate before dealing with Israel and the West.

    So, Zawahiri’s message is directed at accomplishing two things: first, by pointing at the reversals in Iraq and Syria, he is in effect saying “I told you so” regarding IS and others focusing on the near enemy in contradiction to the Al Qaeda prescription; and second, to insinuate himself in Baghdadi’s place as leader of the umma.

  • Mark Adkins says:

    P.P.S. According to Atwan (see above), “the aim of offensive jihad is to come to the rescue of the oppressed and deter tyrants… This form of jihad is characterized as fard kifayah, meaning that if some capable Muslims are engaged in accomplishing the mission, others are exempt from the duty.”

    This is (again) in contrast with defensive jihad, fard ‘ayn, meaning obligatory for every single Muslim at the time and place concerned.

    So in effect, Zawahiri is attempting to change the call to jihad from one of full mobilization of Syrian Muslims to one limited to guerrilla harassment.

    Incidentally, “defensive” jihad isn’t limited to a response to invaders. “Some (certainly bin Laden and al-Zawahiri) would add that struggle against an oppressive regime is a legitimate expression of defensive​ jihad,” writes Atwan.

  • AQ lost its glory after the killing of Ben laden, that dose not mean its weak … and here we have to be more visional while building an opinion what the future development …
    AQ still the most influencing organization in the region, followers… AQ still inspire thousands of youth … their ideology still getting followed ….
    the strategy of alzawhiri concentrating on the near enemy is the main reason that it has less appearance on the international new channels.
    Albaghdadi when challenged alzawahiri, committed another huge mistake, added to his wrong judgment to the future situation of Iraq ans Syria,
    albaghdadi, current situation pushed him to negotiate his return to AQ under alzawahri, and this what we hear soon….
    alzawahiri, will accept the return of AQ in Iraq to keep the presence in this important country as thousands of terrorist are belonging to that area.. and it will a massage to all other organizations …

    we expect that the negotiations, between Al nusra (who joined the other Syrian factions to improve its image among the Syrians ) will always pledge alliance to AQ, but with some understating which is required for the situation in Syria.


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