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Prime Minister Harper called yesterday's shootings in Ottawa at the War Memorial and Parliament Hill a terrorist attack, and vowed to strengthen Canada's antiterrorism laws. The attacker, Michael Zehaf-Bibeau, was shot dead by security officials after he had fatally shot a Canadian soldier and fired shots inside Parliament. It is still unclear whether Zehaf-Bibeau, who was said to be inspired by the Islamic State, acted alone. Canada raised its terrorist threat level from low to medium on Oct. 16 after deciding to join the coalition air campaign against the Islamic State, and security at military bases and other facilities has been increased following the two terrorist attacks this week.

Authorities placed parts of central Ottawa on lockdown after gunfire erupted at the National War Memorial and Parliament Hill; a soldier was shot dead at the War Memorial. One gunman, Michael Joseph Hall a.k.a. Michael Zehaf-Bibeau, a Muslim convert, was killed, and others are being sought. Officials have not yet disclosed the nature of the attack or the identity of the attackers. The FBI is assisting with the investigation of the shootings, which occurred two days after an Islamic State sympathizer ran down two Canadian soldiers in what the government called a "terrorist attack" in Quebec.

Martin Couture-Rouleau a.k.a. Ahmad Rouleau, a Muslim convert from a Montreal suburb, was shot and killed by police after running down two Canadian soldiers in the parking lot of a suburban mall. Described by the police as "radicalized," Rouleau had previously posted jihadist propaganda online.

The House of Commons authorized the deployment of Canadian troops to join the coalition air campaign against the Islamic State in Iraq; Prime Minister Harper said Canadian troops will not be deployed on the ground. He also said Canada will join in coalition airstrikes against the Islamic State in Syria only if the Damascus government fully supported them. The 600-strong Canadian force will be based out of Kuwait. Canadian authorities are conducting 63 investigations on 90 current or would-be foreign fighters in Iraq or Syria. Intelligence chief Michel Coulombe has said that as many as 145 Canadians are involved with terrorist groups abroad and that some 80 foreign fighters linked to terrorist groups have returned to Canada. Coulombe also warned that Islamic State operatives with US or Australian passports could easily enter Canada.

Michel Coulombe, head of Canada's spy agency CSIS, recently stated that "well over 100 Canadians have left Canada to support or train with terrorist movements," and that some are women, and some are Canadian born. He said Canadians should not assume that a mass-casualty attack could not happen in Canada. Last month Hasibullah Yusufzai, 25, a former security guard at a Vancouver mall, was charged in absentia for traveling to Syria to fight for an Islamist group.

An Ontario Superior Court judge acquitted London, Ont. pathologist Khurram Sher of a terrorism charge after deciding that Sher had not shown the requisite intent to join a terrorist group. One of Sher's alleged co-conspirators, Misbahuddin Ahmed, was found guilty of terrorism charges in July; authorities have banned publication of the identity of the third alleged co-conspirator, said to be the ringleader. During a seven-month RCMP investigation, authorities intercepted thousands of communications between the three men showing their plan to raise money for jihad and make and use explosives in Canada; over 56 circuit boards for detonating remotely-controlled bombs were found at the home of one of the conspirators.

British Columbia resident Hasibullah Yusufzai, 25, became the first Canadian charged with traveling abroad for the purpose of terrorist training; he allegedly traveled to Syria in January to join an Islamist group and has not returned. At least 130 Canadians are said to be engaged in extremist activity abroad. Last week Misbahuddin Ahmed, 34, a former hospital worker from Ottawa, was convicted of convicted of conspiring with two other men to facilitate terrorist activity and participating in a terrorist group; they were accused of planning to use explosives for violent jihad against targets in Canada.

Mohamed Hersi, 28, a Toronto university graduate who was born in Somalia, became the first Canadian convicted under a new law that penalizes "leaving or attempting to leave Canada" to commit terrorism. Hersi was arrested at the airport in Toronto in 2011 as he was trying to board a one-way flight to Cairo, on his way to join Shabaab in Somalia.

The government added the International Relief Fund for the Afflicted and Needy (IRFAN), based in Mississauga, Ont., to its list of terrorist organizations for sending millions of dollars to Hamas-linked groups. Canada recently warned its citizens against travel to Nigeria due to the risk of terrorism, violence, and kidnapping. Members of Canada's elite special operations force, CSOR, are providing counterterrorism training to the Nigerien military.

A police officer testified in a Toronto court that Mohamed Hersi, a Somali-Canadian arrested in 2011 while trying to fly to Somalia to join Shabaab, saw himself as a "silent assassin" and leadership type in the al Qaeda-linked group. Hersi said one of his relatives had been arrested for trying to bomb an Ohio shopping mall, and also claimed to have been friends with Mohamed Ibrahim Elmi, a former University of Toronto student who died fighting for Shabaab in late 2009 or early 2010.

As the last 100 Canadian soldiers prepared to return home from Afghanistan, Prime Minister Harper hailed the military's efforts there, where over 40,000 Canadian troops served and 162 were killed. The government spent $1.65 billion on development projects in Afghanistan between 2001 and 2013, and plans to continue to help build the Afghan economy.

The Foreign Ministry is looking into reports that Canadian jihadist Damian Clairmont, a convert to Islam, has died fighting for the Al Nusrah Front in Syria. A Canadian think tank has estimated that as many as 100 Canadians have traveled to Syria for jihad. Another Canadian jihadist, Ali Dirie, is said to have been killed in Syria last fall.

The government added both the Caucasus Emirate and Boko Haram to its list of terrorist organizations. Other groups added to Canada's list this year include the Al Nusrah Front and Mokhtar Belmokhtar's al-Muwaqi'un Bil Dima, as well as the Afghan Taliban and the Haqqani Network.

Canada added the Al Nusrah Front, which has claimed nearly 600 terrorist attacks in Syria, to its list of terrorist organizations. Dozens of Canadian jihadists are thought to have traveled to Syria to fight. Former Guantanamo detainee Omar Khadr again requested a transfer to a provincial jail from the maximum-security prison where he is currently serving an eight-year sentence for war crimes in Afghanistan.

Ali Mohamed Dirie, 30, a convicted terrorist, has been killed while fighting in Syria. He is said to have left Canada for Syria in 2011 after serving prison time for plotting with an Islamist cell to kill the prime minister, take hostages, and bomb targets in the Toronto area. He had reportedly joined an extremist group in Syria. Security officials estimate that about 100 Canadians, mainly from Ontario and Alberta, have gone to Syria to fight in the past year. Evidence in the case of Chiheb Esseghaier and Raed Jaser, who face trial for a terrorist plot to blow up a VIA train, will include a video of two men near the Whirlpool Rapids Bridge in Niagara Falls, Ont.

Canada is investigating reports that a 24-year-old Canadian from Ontario was involved in the Shabaab attack on a Nairobi mall. Authorities said at present they have no information to confirm the claim.

Aaron Yoon, a Canadian who traveled to North Africa in 2011 to join al Qaeda-linked fighters, arrived back in Canada after serving an 18-month sentence in Mauritania. Two of his Canadian high school classmates who had also become jihadists died during the siege of the In Amenas gas facility in Algeria in January.

A government audit found that over $280,000 raised for needy Canadians by the Mississauga-based Islamic Society of North America was sent instead to the Pakistan-based Relief Organization for Kashmiri Muslims, whose directors are linked to Jamaat-e-Islami's militant activities in Kashmir and to the Hizbul Mujahideen, a terrorist group. The audit also found a number of financial irregularities in the Society's operations.

Chiheb Esseghaier, who along with Raed Jaser is being tried in Canada for the Via rail terror plot, wants sealed evidence in the case to be made public except for that on "private life inside the home." Some of the sealed information deals with witness identities and wiretaps.

Justice Minister Nicholson has indicated that Canada intends to extradite Sayfildin Tahir Sharif a.k.a. Faruq Khalil Muhammad Isa to the US to face trial on charges related to a suicide bombing in 2009 that killed five US soldiers at an Iraqi checkpoint. Mohamed Harkat, an Algerian-Canadian accused of being an al Qaeda sleeper agent, is challenging restrictions imposed on him by Canada's "security certificate" program; on July 17 his electronic monitoring bracelet was removed. The Supreme Court plans to convene a secret session in October to review Canadian intelligence files on the transmittal of information about Harakat.